By Middle Bronze Age (2,000 B.C.) Canaan was an Egyptian province, Canaan existed before Israel. Ancient Canaan is the well documented first place of a people, where ancient man first became "settled".. Archaeological excavations has shown evidence of human habitation in Canaan, from Paleolithic and Mesolithic times. Evidence reveals a settled community and an agricultural way of life had existed in the city of Jericho, since about 9,000 B.C.
The Sumerians were the first known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (modern day Iraq). Sumer was often called the cradle of civilization. By the 4th millennium BC, it had established an advanced system writing, spectacular arts and architecture, astronomy and mathematics. The origin of the Sumerians remains a mystery till this day.
Arkaim city. The site was discovered in 1987 by a team of Chelyabinsk scientists who were preparing the area to be flooded in order to create a reservoir, and examined in rescue excavations led by Gennadii Zdanovich. At first their findings were ignored by Soviet authorities, who planned to flood the site as they had flooded Sarkel earlier, but the attention attracted by news of the discovery forced the Soviet government to revoke its plans for flooding the area.
The Anglo-Norman lord William Marshal built the first city walls in Kilkenny in c1210 for colonists from England, Wales and Flanders. The first wall was built from oak timbers set on top of an earthen rampart, outside of which ran a ditch. Sixty years later, William’s grandson Gilbert De Clare replaced the earth and timber defences with a stone wall and towers. This view shows Talbot's Tower in the foreground, built around 1270 and renamed after the 15th century Mayor of Kilkenny Robert Talbot.